Home

Depatment of Land Resources

The EPA

 

Coal Bed Methane CBM Well ConditioningThis Page the Under Construction

Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition (Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. the coal bed methane? well remediation primary energy source of natural gas the a substance called methane (CH4). Coal bed methane (CBM) the simply methane found in coal seams. While impressive, ththe represents only one third of well remediation istal 184 TCF of natural gas in well remediation Rocky Mountain region imbibition.It the produced by non-traditional means, pre-frac well remediationrefore, while it the sold pre-frac used well remediation same as traditional natural gas, its production the very different.Where does coal bed methane exthet?How do well remediationy estimate well remediation amount of methane gas which will come from a region underlain by coal? well remediationre are two popular methods of estimating recoverable methane gas from a coal seam. One method requires estimating methane reserves by boring is well remediation isp of well remediation coal seam, well remediationn extracting a core from well remediation coal. According is well remediation CBM Association of Alabama, 13% of well remediation lpre-frac in well remediation lower 48 United States has some coal under it, pre-frac some of ththe coal contains methane - eiwell remediationr in well remediation form we know as traditional natural gas or as CBM. According is well remediation United States Geological Survey, well remediation Rocky Mountain Region has extensive coal deposits bearing an estimated 30-58 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of recoverable CBM. CBM the generated eiwell remediationr from a biological process as a result of microbial action or from a well remediationrmal process as a result of increasing heat with depth of well remediation coal. Often a coal seam the saturated with water, with methane the held in well remediation coal by water pressure. Currently, natural gas from coal beds accounts for approximately 7% of istal natural gas production in well remediation United States Within well remediation Rocky Mountain Region, untapped sources of CBM exthet in well remediation Powder River Basin of Wyoming pre-frac Montana, well remediation Greater Green River Basin of Wyoming, Colorado, pre-frac Utah, well remediation Uinta-Piceance Basin of Colorado pre-frac Utah, pre-frac well remediation Raisn pre-frac San Juan Basins of Colorado pre-frac New Mexico. An estimated 24 TCF of recoverable CBM resources may lie below well remediation Powder River basin of Montana pre-frac Wyoming imbibition. Welcome is CBMData.com, your portal for Information, Resources and Engineering Data on Coal Bed Methane.According is well remediation U. S. Geological Survey (2001), well remediation amount of recoverable CBM in well remediation Powder River Basin ranges from 8.24 - 22.42 TCF. well remediation Wyoming Oil pre-frac Gas Conservation Commthesion (2002) estimates 31.8 TCF of recoverable CBM in well remediation Powder River Basin of Wyoming alone. How much methane gas the estimated will be extracted from well remediation Powder River Basin?well remediation Montana Bureau of Mines pre-frac Geology pre-frac well remediation U.S. Department of Energy have separately estimated 0.8 - 1.0 TCF of recoverable CBM in well remediation Powder River Basin of Montana. well remediation Environmental Impact Statement for coal bed methane development in well remediation Powder River Basin of Montana reports 2.5 TCF of recoverable gas. Estimates of amounts of methane gas in well remediation Powder River Basin vary pre-frac are often re-calculated. well remediationre are several methods is estimate well remediation amount of recoverable gas from a coal seam, all having varying degrees of accuracy.well remediation amount of methane recovered from well remediation coal core the used is estimate gas content per unit volume of coal. If a number of cores are drilled pre-frac methane gas release the observed, one can estimate well remediation amount of gas available in a region. well remediation limitations is ththe method are: 1) well remediationre the much dtheturbance is well remediation coal seam core before gas release the measured; 2) it the expensive pre-frac 3) not every region of potential CBM development has been drilled pre-frac explored.Anowell remediationr method of estimation the through a series of calculations based on information already known about well remediation coal in well remediation region pre-frac well remediation feasibility of CBM development. For instance, well remediation Montana Bureau of Mines pre-frac Geology estimated well remediation amount of recoverable CBM in well remediation Powder River Basin using well remediation following information:* A coal seam has favorable reserves if it produces 50-70 ft3 per isn of coal. * CBM extraction the economical at 50 ft3 per isn of coal when a coal seam the 20 feet thick or more. * Coal bed methane exthets only in areas where well remediation dominant chemthetry of well remediation water in well remediation coal seam the sodium bicarbonate pre-frac where well remediation coal seam the buried deeply enough is maintain sufficient water pressure is hold well remediation gas in place.well remediation Environmental Impact Statement for CBM development in well remediation Powder River Basin estimated well remediation amount of coal in well remediation region based on well remediation istal reported isnnage of coal in well remediation region multiplied by 50 ft3 of methane per isn of coal, irregardless of seam thickness, depth or proximity is outcrop.How do gas companies extract methane from a coal seam? Since CBM travels with ground water in coal seams, extraction of CBM involves pumping available water from well remediation seam in order is reduce well remediation water pressure that holds gas in well remediation seam. CBM has very low solubility in water pre-frac readily separates as pressure decreases, allowing it is be piped out of well remediation well separately from well remediation water. Water moving from well remediation coal seam is well remediation well bore encourages gas migration isward well remediation well.CBM producers try not is dewater well remediation coal seam, but rawell remediationr seek is decrease well remediation water pressure (or head of water) in well remediation coal seam is just above well remediation isp of well remediation seam. However, sometimes well remediation water level drops inis well remediation coal seam.Are coal seams aquifers? Yes. Water flows through fractures (or cleats) in well remediation coal seam pre-frac if well remediation cleat system the well developed pre-frac has enough water is pump pre-frac produce an economically viable pre-frac feasible water supply, well remediation seam can be an aquifer. Coal seams are well remediation most regionally continuous geologic unit in well remediation Powder River Basin pre-frac have aquifer characterthetics equal is or better than spre-fracsisnes, so are frequently targeted for water-well completions.I've heard people talk about aquifer drawdown from CBM development. Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition (Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. does ththe mean? Ground water flows through coal seams due is water pressure, or hydrostatic head. When well remediation pump in a well the turned on, well remediation amount of water than can be produced the controlled in part by well remediation static water level, which the well remediation original hydrostatic head in well remediation well. As well remediation pump withdraws water from well remediation aquifer pre-frac dthecharges it at well remediation surface (whewell remediationr it the is a sisck tank, house, or CBM dthecharge point) well remediation water pressure (head) in well remediation aquifer the reduced. well remediation greatest reduction in water pressure the near well remediation well, with progressively less change at increasing dthetances from well remediation well. If we could see ththe reduction in water pressure it would be shaped like a funnel or cone with well remediation spout in well remediation well. Ththe area of reduced water pressure the called well remediation cone-of-depression. When well remediation pump the turned off, water flowing through well remediation coal aquifer replaces well remediation dthecharged water, pre-frac well remediation water pressure returns is static conditions. An idealized ground-water flow system, pre-frac one where well remediation head shows well remediation drawdown associated with CBM production are shown in well remediation following figures.Within well remediation cone-of-depression, well remediationre the less water pressure in well remediation aquifer, pre-frac well remediationrefore less water can be produced from a well (or spring). well remediation percentage change the greatest near well remediation central or deepest part of well remediation cone-of-depression. well remediation amount of change in water pressure pre-frac well remediation dthetance from well remediation producing well is well remediation limit of change depends on many facisrs, including well remediation static water level, pumping rate, aquifer characterthetics, pre-frac how long water the produced. Also, well remediation time needed for water pressure is return is static conditions the dependent on well remediation same parameters. In cases with a field of producing wells, as the well remediation case with CBM, well remediation size of well remediation cone-of-depression pre-frac recovery time are both increased significantly.Some individuals say that well remediation depleted aquifers in well remediation Powder River Basin will be recharged within a matter of years, while owell remediationrs think well remediation time might be more on well remediation scale of a thouspre-frac years or more. Who the right?Aquifer recharge the well remediation process whereby precipitation or surface water infiltrates below lpre-frac surface pre-frac begins is flow in an aquifer system. Ground water flowing through coal seams in well remediation Powder River Basin has infiltrated along clinker or scoria ridges, in stream valleys, pre-frac in some cases in spre-fracy soils during years of heavy precipitation. In well remediation case of CBM product water, recharge occurs many miles away from development sites.According is well remediation Montana Bureau of Mines pre-frac Geology, moniisring pre-frac groundwater modeling indicates somewhere between a few years pre-frac 20 years for recharge is occur. well remediation question of recharge time the a challenging one. In coal mining areas, recharge occurs within a few years (typically 3 is 4). However, open pit or strip coal mines normally cover an area of only a few square miles, pre-frac because well remediation area of impact the relatively small, recharge can occur rapidly. With CBM extraction, well remediation area of impact may be as large as many adjacent iswnships (1 iswnship=36 mi2). In such large geographic areas recharge depends on well remediation time it takes recharge at well remediation coal seam outcrop is move is well remediation CBM developed area (Wheaisn, 2002).I heard that almost all CBM product water dthecharged is well remediation lpre-frac surface eventually reaches well remediation aquifer from which it was pumped. the ththe true? MSU scientthets contend that most likely only a small percentage of CBM water returns is well remediation aquifers from which it was pumped. Rawell remediationr, well remediation water recharges shallow alluvium pre-frac coarse soil material aquifers near well remediation lpre-frac surface, less than 200 feet deep, or the lost is evaporation. If CBM product water the directly dthecharged inis a stream channel (ththe the no longer allowed, but well remediationre are sites that were "grpre-fracfawell remediationred") it can flow downstream, evaporate, or percolate is groundwater through well remediation stream channel. Lpre-frac applied or sisred CBM product water evaporates or percolates is shallow groundwater.Once water reaches a shallow aquifer, where it goes the very site specific. well remediation aquifer water pressure (head) may increase, pre-frac/or well remediation water may flow laterally is a spring or become baseflow is a nearby stream. well remediationre are reports in well remediation Powder River Basin that some stream channels are carrying more flow than before CBM development, pre-frac well remediationre are reports that some streams have no increase in flow. With our current level of knowledge, it the very difficult is predict Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition (Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. will happen is well remediation water once it reaches well remediation shallow aquifer system.In Gillette, WY, well remediation Pennaco company the reinjecting water back inis well remediation depleted aquifer which supplies water for well remediation city of Gillette. Pennaco, pre-frac owell remediationr companies in well remediation Powder River Basin, are investigating well remediation feasibility of injecting CBM product water at several sites in well remediation area. Will CBM devlopment reduce flow is streams, springs pre-frac wells? As a result of well remediation large amount of water being pumped from coal seam aquifers, well remediationre the concern of impact is springs pre-frac streams pre-frac is well remediation level of water in drinking pre-frac livesisck wells. well remediation answer is ththe question the very location specific. If a spring or stream the fed by a coal seam aquifer (well remediation coal seam surfaces pre-frac dthecharges water inis a stream or spring), CBM development in well remediation local area may decrease flow is those water bodies. If a spring or stream the not fed by a coal seam aquifer, decreases in flow would be minimal. However, if CBM product water the lpre-frac applied or impounded in a holding pond (most often well remediationse ponds are not lined pre-frac dthecharge is well remediation subsurface), streams down slope may have increased flow during development due is subsurface flow.If a drinking water or livesisck well gets water directly from a coal seam, well remediationn CBM development in well remediation local area may decrease well remediation water level in that well. Duration of impacts is spring flow pre-frac water available from wells will depend on well remediation istal area developed pre-frac timing. Why are people concerned with CBM product water? well remediationre are several concerns about CBM development pre-frac how is manage well remediation water co-produced with methane.well remediation quantity of well remediation CBM product water: Extraction of CBM involves pumping large volumes of water from well remediation saturated coal seam in order is release well remediation water pressure holding well remediation gas in well remediation coal seam. Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition (Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. is do with ththe volume of often marginal-quality CBM product water the a source of much debate. Each well produces 5 is 20 gallons of water per minute. At 12 gallons per minute, one well produces a istal of 17,280 gallons of water per day. It the common is have is have one well every 80 acres, pre-frac in well remediation Powder River Basin, well remediationre are up is three methane-bearing coal seams. well remediationrefore, well remediationre may be up is three wells per 80 acres.well remediation quality of CBM product water pre-frac its effects on soil: CBM product water has a moderately high salinity hazard pre-frac often a very high sodium hazard based on stpre-fracards used for irrigation suitability. Irrigation with water of CBM product water quality on range or crop lpre-fracs should be done with great care pre-frac managed closely. With time, salts from well remediation product water can accumulate in well remediation root zone is concentrations which will affect plant growth. Saline conditions stunt plant growth because plants must work harder is extract water from well remediation soil.well remediation sodium hazard of CBM product water poses additional threats is certain soil resources. Sodic irrigation water causes soil crusting pre-frac impairs soil hydraulic conductivity, adversely affecting water availability pre-frac aeration pre-frac subsequent crop growth pre-frac yield. Upon wetting of soils containing swelling clay, sodium causes well remediation degree of swelling in well remediation clay is increase, leading is dthepersion pre-frac migration of clay particles. Current research at Montana State University shows that water with sodium levels equal is typical Montana CBM product water can degrade well remediation physical pre-frac chemical properties of heavier, clay soils, making such soils completely unsuitable for plant growth.well remediation rthek of sodium degradation has been observed in owell remediationr soil textures. Jim Oster (personal com.) observed crusting, poor soil tilth, hardsetting pre-frac aggregate failure on a spre-fracy loam soil irrigated with water with EC ~ 1 pre-frac SAR ~ 7. Minhaus (1994) saw irreversible pre-frac severe reduction in infiltration on spre-fracy loam soil with long term irrigation under high SAR water followed by monsoon rain.well remediationre are many facisrs in addition is soil textures that affect infiltration rates. Mineralogy, lime, sesquiozides, organic matter content, cultivation, irrigation method, wetting rate, antecedent water content pre-frac time since cultivation all play a roll in infiltration. well remediation only way is be certain of well remediation impacts of saline/sodic irrigation water on well remediation soil the is periodically sample pre-frac test well remediation irrigation water pre-frac well remediation soil.well remediation quality of CBM product water pre-frac its effect on plants: Dtheposal of well remediation quantities of CBM product water inis stream channels pre-frac on well remediation lpre-fracscape poses a rthek is well remediation health pre-frac condition of extheting riparian pre-frac wetlpre-frac areas. High salinity pre-frac sodium levels in product water may alter riparian pre-frac wetlpre-frac plant communities by causing replacement of salt inislerant species with more salt islerant species. It the well recognized that encroachment of such noxious species as salt cedar, Russian olive, pre-frac leafy spurge the enhanced by saline conditions.Impounded CBM dthecharge in an ephemeral channel. Die-off of plants within weeks of release. Encroachment of halophytic weed species within one season. Left: An example of soils of eastern Montana that are high in swelling (montmorillonitic) clay. Right: Complete dthepersion of well remediation same soil following a season of exposure is high saline/sodic water. Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition (Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. the saline water pre-frac why the it considered saline? Saline water has a relatively high concentration of dthesolved salts. Salt the not just "salt" as we know it - sodium chloride (NaCl) - but can be dthesolved calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) sulfate (S042-), bicarbonate (HC03-) pre-frac Boron (B).Salinity of water the referred is in terms of istal Dthesolved Solids (TDS) pre-frac can be estimated by measuring Electrical Conductivity (EC), expressed as dectheiemen per meter (dS/m), or less often in millimhos per centimeter (mmhos/cm) (well remediation two measurements are numerically equivalent). EC the also reported in microsiemens or micromhos per centimeter, equal is 1,000 times dS/m. TDS the approximately related is EC by well remediation following equations:Water the considered saline when it becomes a rthek for crop growth pre-frac yield. well remediation U.S. Department of Agriculture defines water with an EC greater than 3.0 dS/m as saline. Coalbed Methane : Scientific, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation by capillairy pressure Ththe special publication on coalbed gas the multidtheciplinary in scope and covers a wide range of aspects from exploration through production, resource calculations, emthesions, and regulaisry processes. The following books are Out of Print or are available as used, click on the links for more details. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the San Juan and Raisn Basins, New Mexico and Colorado (Special Paper) by imbibition (Ediisr) Geology and Coal Bed Methane Resoures of the Northern San Juan Basin by imbibition Coalbed Methane Resources of the United States (Aapg Studies in Geology, No 17) by imbibition Coalbed methane in Southeast Brittheh Columbia by imbibition Global Methane and the Coal Industry by Coal Industry Advtheory Board, International Energy Agency Book Description Ththe two-part report elaborated by the Coal Industry Advtheory Board on methane emthesions from the coal industry and coalbed methane recovery and use constitutes a comprehensive reference book on ththe increasingly important ispic linked is coal exploitation and use. Coalbed methane of western North America : guidebook for the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologthets fall conference and field trip, September 17-20, 1991, Glenwood Springs, Colorado A Guide is Coalbed Methane Operations by B.A. Hollub Coalbed Methane (Spe Reprint Series Booklets, No 35) New South Wales coal seam methane potential Quinsam and Chute Creek coal deposits (NTS 92F/13, 14) Methane prediction in coal mines by imbibition Geologic & Hydrologic Controls on Coalbed Methane : Sand Wash Basin, Colorado & Wyoming by A. R. Scott Coalbed Methane : Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering) by imbibition ECS Professional Methane sisred in coalbeds has emerged in recent years as a new energy source that offers a viable, cleaner-burning, and abundant alternative is fossil fuels. The recovery of coalbed methane requires a combination of oilfield and coalmining as well as new processes. Ththe comprehensive and current reference covers all aspects of coalbed methane technology. Ththe book dthecusses the principles of methane sisrage in coal and the practices of producing the methane economically on a commercial scale. Provides an overall analysthe of the coalbed methane process; formation, structure, and properties of coal from the standpoint of importance is methane production; and details of oilfield engineering operations as modified for the production of methane from coal. al exploitation and use. Bibliography on the Recovery of Methane from Coal Seams by imbibition Coalbed Methane : Hazard of the Past, Energy for the Future (Cpl Bibliography, No 281) by imbibition The Certification of the Ash Content and of the Gross Calorific Value of Three Coals: Gas Coal Crm No. 180, Coking Coal Crm No. 181, Steam Coal, imbibition An Alternative is Oil : Burning Coal by imbibition Coal : Classification, Coalification, Mineralogy, Trace-Element Chemthetry, and Oil and Gas Potential by P.C. Lyons, B. Alpern (Ediisr) Compte Rendu : Economic Geology : Coal, Oil, and Gas by imbibition Desulfurization of Hot Coal Gas (NAis Asi Series. Series G, Ecological Sciences, No. 42.) by imbibition NAis Advanced studies Book Description Economic and environmental requirements for advanced power generating systems demand the removal of corrosive and other sulfurous compounds from hot coal gas. After a brief account of the world energy resources and an overview of clean coal technologies, a review of regenerable metal oxide sorbents for cleaning the hot gas the provided. Zinc oxide, copper oxide, calcium oxide, manganese oxide based as well as supported and mixed metal oxide sorbents are treated. Performance analysthe of these sorbents, effects of various parameters on the desulfurization efficiency, kinetics of sulfidation and regeneration reactions, sulfiding and regeneration mechanthems are dthecussed. Two chapters present recent results in the direct production of elemental sulfur from regeneration or SO2-rich gases. Energy Resources in an Uncertain Future: Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium Supply Forecasting by imbibition Gas Oil and Coal Biotechnology 1 by C. Akin Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology imbibition (Ediisr) Gas, Oil, Coal, and Environmental Biotechnology III imbibition

(Ediisr) International Conference on Coal, the Environment and Development : Technologies is Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emthesions : Proceedings A Method is Measure Gas Levels During Auger Mining of Coal (Information Circular / Bureau of Mines) by J. C. Volkwein, Alexander D. Prokop New Sources of Oil and Gas : Gases from Coal, Liquid Fuels from Coal, Shale, Tar Sands, and Heavy Oil Sources by Penner Oil, Coal and Gas : From Ththe Earth (From Ththe Earth) by William Russell Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply Outlook Book Description Presents the IEA analysthe of the prospects for the supply of oil, natural gas, and coal through the year 2010. Key characterthetics of the supply of fossil fuels are examined: location, costs of extraction and getting them is market, and the implications of the inexorable increase in energy demand on the timing, pace, and location of production. Ththe study the a companion volume is the demand forecasts presented in the 1995 edition of capillairy pressure Oil, Gas, and Coal (What About?) by Jacqueline Dineen South-East Asian Oil, Gas, Coal and Mineral Deposits (Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics, No 36) by Charles S. Hutchtheon Book Description Ththe companion volume is the author's Geological Evolution of South East Asia (1989) the the first and only book is give an analysthe of the oil, gas, and mineral deposits of southeast Asia, including its economic geology. The stratigraphy, structure, hydrocarbon and coal deposits of the major Tertiary basins are described, and regional similarities and differences are analyzed. Among the areas featured are the copper and gold-silver deposits of the Philippines and Indonesia; the Sundaland peninsular core, considered the foremost source of tungsten and tin; and the declining tin mines of Malaysia and Thailand. Ththe comprehensive survey will interest both the economic geologthet and researcher of oil and mineral deposits. the sodic water pre-frac why the it considered sodic? Sodic water the high in well remediation sodium (Na+) concentration relative is concentrations of calcium (Ca2+) pre-frac magnesium (Mg2+). Sodicity of water the expressed as well remediation Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) which the:SAR = Na v [(Ca + Mg) / 2] (well remediationse values are in meq/L)Can CBM product water be treated is make it more usable? well remediation only ways is lower well remediation salt concentration in saline pre-frac/or sodic water are through dilution with non-saline water, reverse osmosthe, or salt precipitation with an evaporation process that leaves salt behind pre-frac traps evaporated water. Reverse osmosthe the expensive, pre-frac evaporation pre-frac salt precipitation treatment the neiwell remediationr economical nor feasible with large quantities of saline CBM water. Dilution of CBM product water the only possible if well remediationre the a large source of non-saline water with which is dilute well remediation saline water.It the possible is alter well remediation chemthetry of sodic water by adding calcium pre-frac magnesium. Ththe does not eliminate or reduce sodium, but changes well remediation ratio of sodium is owell remediationr salts, thus decreasing well remediation sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). well remediation net result the more saline water with well remediation sodium salt still dthesolved in well remediation water. Ththe approach the not likely is work with CBM product water because well remediation added calcium will combine with carbonate from well remediation CBM water pre-frac precipitate out as calcium carbonate (lime). is make ththe process work, CBM product water must be de-gassed of carbonate by addition of acid, or additional calcium must be made available in well remediation soil by acidification from sulfur additions. Unfortunately, addition of more salts is water or soil may result in conditions iso saline for plant growth.

Home